Transnational urban space-making has been discussed either in the context of corporate impacts on global cities or of transnational urbanism in the migration literature. This chapter brings together these two research strands and discusses the dual role of transnational professionals in global city making as both decision-making business practitioners in transnational corporations and also individuals with transnational social-spatial practices as specific transmigrants themselves. It is based on data deriving from 45 semi-structured interviews with transnational financial professionals accompanied partly by mental maps drawn by them, and complemented by expert interviews with real estate agencies as well as a group interview with Tokyoite peers. The chapter sheds new light on a so far neglected aspect of global city making by presenting empirical evidence on transnational professionals and their dual space-making process as micro-level actors embedded in the global cities network.
Andrew Johnston, Paul Lassalle and Sakura Yamamura
While still in its infancy, the concept of the entrepreneurial ecosystem introduces a number of external factors that influence the new venture creation process, highlighting the fact that this process can involve a myriad of interdependent actors and environmental factors. While this may be a useful development, a lack of clarity as to its extent and make up has led to criticism that it is conceptually ad hoc. In order to address this criticism and contribute to this debate, this chapter draws on Giddens’ structuration approach to build a theoretical framework that captures and incorporates the co-constructed and co-evolutionary nature of entrepreneurial ecosystems, as well as highlighting the co-evolution of agents and structures, and drawing attention to the temporal and spatial dimensions of the ecosystem dynamics. We suggest that this lens could be a useful theoretical tool for considering the dynamics of the entrepreneurial ecosystem.