Kathrin Kolb and Sandra Buchholz
Annika Rinklake and Sandra Buchholz
Sandra Buchholz and Daniela Grunow
Susanne Wahler, Sandra Buchholz and Asta Breinholt
The objective of our chapter is to investigate childcare arrangements at preschool age and later child outcomes in Denmark, taking into consideration the role of maternal education and type of care. Denmark represents an interesting case for studying this issue, because it strongly defamiliarizes childcare, placing much weight on a well-developed and much frequented early childhood education and care (ECEC) system (G'slason and Eydal 2011; Del Boca 2015). In concrete terms, we first examine in which types of early childcare Danish children are being cared for at age three. Second, we analyse whether and how maternal education is associated with the type of three-year-old children’s preschool care arrangement. Third, we explore whether maternal education and the type of early childcare at age three are related to children’s later outcomes as measured by their language skills and cognitive skills at age 11 as well as their cognitive skills at age 15. To test our research interests, we used data from the Danish Longitudinal Survey of Children (DALSC). In brief our results showed that the great majority of Danish children in our sample attended some form of out-of-home care during the daytime at age three, whereby there are patterns of social inequality in the type of early childcare received by the offspring from different maternal educational backgrounds. It also appeared that maternal education exerts a powerful influence on all of the examined skills. As regards the role of the type of preschool care arrangement at age three for children’s outcomes evaluated at age 11 and age 15, we found only one significant negative association between low-quality versus high-quality publicly provided out-of-home care and 11-year-old children’s language skills.
Susanne Wahler, Sandra Buchholz and Stine Møllegaard
Jan Skopek, Moris Triventi and Sandra Buchholz
This chapter examines the role of differentiation in secondary education in social inequality of educational opportunities. In general, schooling plays an ambivalent role in shaping educational inequality. We highlight two seemingly contradictory but complementary perspectives of schooling, that is, as ‘equalizer’ versus ‘locus of reproduction of inequality’. The common practice of educational differentiation can be seen as a key mechanism of reproduction that is operating in all education systems, sometimes in more and sometimes in less overt forms. Focusing on the role of school tracking as a specific form of educational differentiation, our chapter reviews various research designs in contemporary comparative studies on the impact of tracking on social inequality in educational opportunities and outcomes. We identify cross-national research as a major research strategy for learning about effects of educational systems and discuss two generic approaches – variable based versus case based – as well as their respective strengths and limitations. Finally, our chapter presents recent comparative evidence on the effect of tracking on social inequality in learning outcomes of students.