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Sandrine Berger-Douce

The specificities of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) make societal challenges such as the commitment to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and more recently digital transformation even more complex for these organizations. The paradox perspective developed since the 1980s is designed to simultaneously meet competing demands. A single longitudinal case study (2014-2018) in an industrial French SME was conducted. We collected primary data mainly through in-depth interviews with 12 internal interlocutors in the industrial SME from April to November 2018. We interviewed, face-to-face, managers, technicians and operators. The findings focus on HR management practices regarding required skills, recognition of the employees and redefinition of jobs. This "strategic paradox" (Iivonen, 2018; Smith, 2015) is based on the requirements of competing and interdependent stakeholders. The role of middle managers is central to ensure the place of the person in this new work organization (Dejoux and Léon, 2018; Dudézert, 2018). The originality of this chapter is to provide an analysis showing how to reconcile commitment to CSR and digital transition in SMEs through the theory of paradox in a specific cultural context, i.e. France.

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Sandrine Berger-Douce and Christophe Schmitt