Turkey and Azerbaijan bear similarities in terms of their transformation, despite having different economic and political histories. Turkey’s transformation involves its passage from a mixed to neoliberal economy, while Azerbaijan departed from a socialist economy to follow the same track. Turkey underwent a transition period in order to re-establish a democratic political system that was interrupted by the 1980 coup d’état; whereas Azerbaijan is in the process of becoming an independent, democratic country, freed from its socialist system since 1991. The radical changes in industrial relations in the two countries are transforming the system, but it is not yet stabilized. Therefore, the process remains incomplete and will continue in the forthcoming years. Turkey and Azerbaijan are in need of cooperation in industrial relations, as well as in other domains.