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Mohamed Ariff and Shamsher Mohamed

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Mohamed Ariff, Munawar Iqbal and Shamsher Mohamed

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Mohamed Ariff, Meysam Safari and Shamsher Mohamed

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Mohamed Ariff, Munawar Iqbal and Shamsher Mohamed

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Islamic Wealth Management

Theory and Practice

Edited by Mohamed Ariff and Shamsher Mohamad

From an Islamic perspective, although the ownership of wealth is with God, humans are gifted with wealth to manage it with the objective of benefiting the human society. Such guidance means that wealth management is a process involving the accumulation, generation, purification, preservation and distribution of wealth, all to be conducted carefully in permissible ways. This book is the first to lay out a coherent framework on how wealth management should be conducted in compliance with guiding principles from edicts of a major world religion.
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Mohamed Ariff and Shamsher Mohamad

Zakat is charity payable each year on the excess wealth beyond that needed for one’s station in life. This is mandated as a duty of believers to give to charity a small portion ranging from as low as 2.5% on the excess to 7% (in the case of ornaments of precious items). It is given voluntarily by the faithful to whoever they wish to give and that includes the poor among the family. The sum is unknown and it is thought to be very large because these sums of money are supporting mosques, education, hospitals, and orphanages and support for the needy. Zakat is to be paid first before the balance of wealth could be invested to earn more wealth, which in turn will mandate further zakat payments in the ensuing year. This is pertinent to wealth management because the faithful is to have professional advice on how to compute this amount each year. We believe this is part of wealth management advisory services.

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Mohamed A. Gadhoum and Shamsher Mohamad

Benchmarks serve a critical role financial markets as a point of reference for pricing the riskiness of a financial security, to indicate the relative value or opportunity cost of capital while it also serves as a yardstick for the relative performance of a portfolio. The existence of a transparent, observable, liquid, easy-to-compute and non-manipulative benchmark is vital for efficient financial markets. Islamic finance has yet to develop appropriate benchmarks and currently use LIBOR as the reference benchmark in determining expected rate of return in shariah-compliant securities. This practice has been allowed by scholars as an exception under the law of necessity. Unfortunately, despite being in practice for decades, this exception has become a general rule and the practice is so prevalent that most practitioners in the Islamic finance Industry. The key difficulty lies in obtaining a rate of return in an economy based on profit-and-loss sharing. This chapter discuss in detail the development of a benchmark for shariah-compliant investments taking into consideration the conceptual and practical issues.

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Edited by Mohamed Ariff and Shamsher Mohamad

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Mohamed Ariff and Shamsher Mohamad

Adam Smith traced the source of opulence of nation, which he called capital, to the uninterrupted efforts of every man to better his condition. Today we define wealth as the item that has some economic substance, a value such that this wealth can be used for several intended purposes, in modern economics, for consumption as theoretically glorified by the Utility Maximization Theorem (Arrow-Debreu). In this chapter, the reader is introduced to the modern idea of net wealth held by households and entities. The amount of wealth as at 2017 is given as US$ 250 trillion after all liabilities are subtracted from total wealth. In this context, Calvin’s contribution of wealth as God’s gift to man is referred to, which provides a continuity with Islam’s claim that wealth belongs to God, and He apportions who begets it.

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Ziyaad Mahomed, Mohamed Ariff and Shamsher Mohamad

Debt issuances traditionally attracts a negative sentiment, so the corporation’s shares decline in prices around the time of the issuances. Sukuk being another form of debt, none the less, structured differently from a conventional bond, should have some effect on the shares when sukuk are issued and traded. We explore this aspect in the chapter only to find that the market appears to generally favour sukuk issues as good news, so the share prices go up. However, during the Global Financial Crisis era, sukuk issuances attracted negative sentiments.