Today’s armed forces around the world operate in complex, dynamic, and often dangerous geopolitical contexts. Military and civilian scholars alike have identified implications these challenging environments have for the nature of modern day warfare and, consequently, the need for identifying leadership paradigms enabling military leaders to respond adaptively to a wide range of strategic, operational, and tactical challenges. The creative capacity of leaders and their followers has become increasingly important in military leadership contexts. This chapter reviews the literature on creativity and leadership as it pertains to military contexts, focusing on creative attributes and behavior of leaders themselves and on leaders as facilitators of individual follower and team creativity. Suggestions for advancing the research on creativity and leadership in military contexts are offered.
Shane Connelly and Stephen J. Zaccaro
Shane Connelly and Megan R. Turner
Fear is a powerful emotion that seems incompatible with effective functioning and well-being in organizations. This assumption bears out in the relatively small amount of existing research on fear in the workplace and a general unwillingness to talk openly about fear at work. Despite any reluctance or attempts at avoiding discussions of fear at work, this basic human emotion has been adaptive in helping people escape, avoid, and face a wide range of threats. Additionally, given the persistent presence of fear in organizations due to the nature of some occupational work, affective events, and organizational climate, it is important to have a broader understanding of where it comes from, its effects, and its outcomes. This chapter explores dual perspectives on fear in the workplace, considering organizational research on functional and dysfunctional experiences and outcomes associated with this emotion. Fear has important implications for emotional well-being, social interactions, and performance, requiring employees and leaders to better understand fear by creating more dialogue about how to regulate and manage it.