Although a large body of literature exists regarding the difficulties women encounter in attempting to gain tenure, research does not exist regarding women’s post-tenure experiences as they attempt to attain the rank of full professor. This chapter examines career paths by gender, and demonstrates that women’s careers tend to plateau at the mid-ranks of faculty while men’s careers tend to lead to the highest rank. Psychological theories on Social Identity Threat are presented to explain the differences in career paths by gender for professors with equal productivity and human capital. The authors propose that women face an increasingly hostile work environment after they obtain tenure because some men feel increasingly threatened in their male identity when women are promoted. Career development implications are discussed.