Ongoing globalization and the rise of neoliberalism have intensified price competition in domestic and international markets. If we consider a cost reduction owing to price competition, an important question arises: what is the most effective way of reducing costs to stimulate output and growth? By constructing a Kaleckian model with an intermediate goods sector and a final goods sector, we show that reducing the mark-up rate in the latter sector rather than the former promotes capacity utilization and capital accumulation. Moreover, we show that transferring the burden of the cost reduction onto workers in the intermediate goods sector decreases the demand and growth rate.
Hiroaki Sasaki and Shinya Fujita
In modern capitalist economies, income distribution has a tendency to be in favor of shareholders. This paper interprets pro-shareholder distribution as a decrease in the retention ratio of firms and an increase in the profit share. We introduce labor supply constraints into a post-Keynesian growth model with debt accumulation and investigate the effects of changes in the natural rate of growth, retention ratio, profit share, and interest rate on the rate of capacity utilization and the financial structure of firms. We further analyse the stability of the steady-state equilibrium and the transitional dynamics toward the equilibrium and show that, depending on conditions, there could be cyclical fluctuations such that the financial structure changes periodically between speculative finance and Ponzi finance.