Linguistic barriers are often among the first and most evident obstacles that professionals encounter when they move to another Member State. The difficulties of learning and mastering a foreign language can impair the prospects of insertion into the labour market of a host country. In Denmark, language is also supposed to be an instrument for accessing the local culture and national values. The legislation sustains the political assumption that the best place to learn Danish is in the workplace. However, what happens if access to the labour market is precluded until a very high Danish proficiency is achieved? Is it always the responsibility of the individual, or is there perhaps also an underlying cultural barrier that keeps foreign professionals out of the labour market? By exploring formal (legal) and informal (de facto) barriers in Denmark, this chapter approaches the broader question of European Union professionals’ free movement from a language perspective.
Access to justice has a great effect on citizens for a multitude of issues and concerns. The notion can be broadly defined as encompassing a variety of rights and instances. In the context of the present chapter, access to justice is linked to the cases of data protection, civil litigation, and criminal proceedings in the national practices of selected Member States, which are all instances where disputes involving Union citizens may arise. A variety of approaches to access to justice emerge, depending on the national context, the level of adherence to EU legal instruments, and the resources allocated to the implementation of access to justice mechanisms. The conclusions point to a need to restate the importance of lifting barriers to the known and new limits to access to justice for Union citizens, and possibly implementing innovative ways for citizens to access legal aid and services.
Silvia Adamo and Tom Binder
A fast and efficient recognition procedure can open the door to easy insertion into a foreign European Union (EU) labour market. Since the 1960s, EU legislations and institutions have fostered a detailed system for recognition of professional qualifications to help Union citizens make use of their qualifications and skills across the Union. The system for mutual recognition of professional qualifications is supposed to alleviate the national markets’ shortages of labour, enhancing the intra-EU mobility of professionals and acting as a guarantee for the use of their skills. However, the agreement on this mutual system has not been easy to achieve, and many administrative hurdles persist at a national level. In this chapter, after reviewing the legislation in the area, a selection of Member States’ practices are used as a showcase for the practical, cultural and economic barriers Union citizens may encounter when they move to another Member State and wish to exercise their profession.