The measurement of human rights has grown steadily over recent decades and is today an important element of human rights work. Measurement has been important for diverse reasons from reporting to treaty bodies to informing decisions on whether human rights should condition trade preferences. In spite of the many opportunities offered by measurement, it also faces challenges. For quantitative measurement, a significant challenge is ensuring that measurement is reliable and valid. The chapter sets out different approaches to measuring human rights, identifies the main challenges facing these approaches and makes some propositions to improve measurement initiatives. The chapter concludes by emphasizing the importance of sound methodology, the professionalization of measurement through national coordination bodies and cross-disciplinary dialogue as a means of ensuring greater reliability and validity of human rights measurement
This chapter focuses on methodology and practice of human rights impact assessment (HRIA) of trade agreements. It sets out the basic steps of the methodology and identifies the actors, time and resources involved, referencing current practice. The assessments covered include HRIAs that focus specifically on human rights (stand-alone HRIAs) and assessments that integrate human rights alongside the analysis of economic, environmental and social impacts (integrated IAs). The chapter examines opportunities and challenges related to HRIA of trade agreements, highlighting the broader context of human rights due diligence (HRDD) of business projects and activities under the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGPs), which has provided both guidance and impetus for HRIA of trade agreements. The chapter highlights the incorporation of participatory assessment techniques as a particular challenge facing HRIAs of trade agreements and encourages development of further methodological guidance in this regard.