The phenomenon of emerging economies has received substantial attention in the study of International Political Economy (IPE). This chapter aims at examining Turkey’s national energy policy from the emerging economies’ perspective focusing on the risk factor. The risk factor is key in conceptualising an emerging economy and encapsulates a number of facets including socio-economic, regulatory and political. In doing so, in the chapter a blend of levels of analysis is applied to capture domestic, international and geographical dimensions that underpin the risk factor in the case of Turkey’s energy policy. Drawing on the case study material analysis the chapter presents main stumbling blocks of a risk-focused IPE of emerging markets consisting of conflicting policy choices between the domestic and international levels. Finally, drawing on the case study of Turkey, the geographical factor of emerging economies is evaluated in reference to energy trade.
The purpose of this chapter is to look at the key existing and planned gas transit projects to export natural gas from Russia and at sketching a critical analysis of existing conceptual debates concerning energy and Europe. Having in mind the changing global energy and climate policy landscape, the chapter first discusses the energy–environment nexus to contextualise natural gas within emerging global climate narrative post COP21. By doing so, the chapter seeks to present the ‘bigger picture’ and likely repercussions should the emerging global climate policy become widely applied. Drawing on these macroeconomic issues, the chapter then moves on to discussing natural gas from the geopolitical angle before analysing existing and planned natural gas projects. Having outlined the projects, the chapter then draws on the conceptual debates outlining the challenges and opportunities that the natural gas projects produce within the broad remits of climate, geopolitics and development.