Public ownership is a way to provide goods and services where market performance is not satisfactory, or when the economy would otherwise be stagnant. This chapter provides a brief review of the existing theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for further research. While far from exhaustive, our overview suggests that there is no unanimous body of research showing that the costs of public ownership overshadow its benefits. More research is needed on different forms of ownership, and we emphasise potential intrinsic motivation under private and public ownership as well as their impact on quality and on the constraints imposed by international competition. We also suggest research on renationalisation through buyer power and on the significance of governance quality.