Owing to an aging population, as well as delays to childbirth, a growing number of employees are providing informal care to both children and frail family members. There are a number of ways employees leverage their resources to manage their competing work and family caregiving responsibilities, and to protect their well-being. To better understand how resources are utilized in this context, the authors present a taxonomy of resource effects that categorizes different ways resources can combine to protect employee well-being. Moreover, in this chapter they describe potential explanatory mechanisms of different resource effects and offer boundary conditions for resource interactions. This chapter consolidates and reviews empirical studies that have examined different resource combinations in the work and caregiving literature, and identifies a number of resource effects, including resource buffering, resource gain and loss, resource spirals, and two types of resource interactions—boosting and compensation. Limitations and directions for future research are identified, to develop the field further. Key words: caregiving, eldercare, childcare, resources, work–family conflict, work–family enrichment, well-being.
Thomas A. Norton, Stacey L. Parker, Matthew C. Davis, Sally V. Russell and Neal M. Ashkanasy
Stakeholders increasingly evaluate contemporary organisations on their environmental performance. Consequently, pro-environmental or “green” behaviour and its drivers are becoming an important aspect of workplace behaviour. In this regard, we outline how organisations can encourage their employees to be green at work. Importantly, we note that individual green behaviour contributes to system-level environmental performance. Thus, we consider an organisation as a complex adaptive system wherein employees create a workplace environment that subsequently influences their activity at work. We describe this as a virtuous cycle where employee green behaviour builds a green organisational culture, which then encourages more green behaviour. By helping employees modify the local rules guiding behaviour to include EGB, organisations might be able to enhance the effectiveness of their formal structures and develop a positive culture towards environmental sustainability. To this end, we provide recommendations for practitioners in this area.