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Edited by Stan Geertman and John Stillwell

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Edited by Stan Geertman and John Stillwell

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Stan Geertman and John Stillwell

This introductory chapter has two main objectives. First, it acknowledges the rapidly changing world that we live in and summarises some of the mega trends, challenges and risks at different scales that provide the context for the development of the sub-discipline that we now refer to as planning support science and the planning support systems (PSS) that have been created. Second, the rationale for the sequence of the remaining chapters in this handbook that have been grouped into key themes is explained and a short resumé of each chapter is presented that outlines the objectives and key contributions in each case. Several of the chapters report on particular PSS applications.

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Zsuzsanna Tomor and Stan Geertman

With reference to the field of planning support science, our understanding of the influence of contextual factors on planning-orientated smart governance initiatives must be improved. An extensive literature review revealed that minimal attention has been paid to the influence of contextual factors. This lack of attention prompted the focus of this research, which empirically investigated the influence of the political context on smart city initiatives in Glasgow (Scotland, UK), Utrecht (Netherlands) and Curitiba (Brazil). In general, we conclude that political contextual factors play a role in influencing smart governance initiatives. Process-wise (roles of governments, non-state actors and technologies), the political context strongly shapes smart-governance initiatives. The research also revealed how unpredictable the role of citizens is in the light of the political context. Content-wise (societal outcomes), it is still unknown how these differences in contextual factors will lead to distinctive societal outcomes. For that, we will need a longer research timespan.

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Edited by Stan Geertman and John Stillwell

Encompassing a broad range of innovative studies on planning support science, this timely Handbook examines how the consequences of pressing societal challenges can be addressed using computer-based systems. Chapters explore the use of new streams of big and open data as well as data from traditional sources, offering significant critical insights into the field.
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Thomas Hartmann and Stan Geertman

Planning theory has developed and changed dramatically during the short history of its existence. In this chapter, the relation between planning and (planning) theories is explored by using three perspectives – theories in, for and of planning. These three are linked to phases in the history of spatial planning: Prior to the 1970s, planning theories were analytical and conceptual tools to understand the object of planning (theories in planning). In the 1970s, a big paradigm shift changed this perspective in favor of a strong orientation towards the process of planning, that is, communicative, collaborative or participatory planning (theories for planning). Recent planning theory tends to question this strong process orientation to planning theory, and theorists search for a more general theory of planning (theories of planning). These three perspectives are presented and discussed in the light of creating a general theory of governance.

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Patrick Witte, Eline Punt and Stan Geertman

In academic literature, the smart-city concept is mostly considered from a technology-orientated perspective that stresses the use of data technologies, big data and information and communication technology (ICT) to smarten up cities. The same goes for smart governance, as one of the sub-domains of the smart city. What seems to be missing is empirical insight into how smart governance is applied in specific local contexts. This chapter emphasizes how applications of smart governance vary over different governance settings in the case of the Netherlands. We aim to analyze the willingness and ability of municipalities to implement smart-governance applications in their own local context. The results presented in this chapter show that municipalities in the Netherlands are using a large variety of smart-governance applications, notably to enhance their smart policy making and internal organization. Examples of external restructuring are few and far between, indicating that the most transformative types of smart governance – smart administration and smart urban collaboration – are mostly still in the making.