The Boards are an independent body within the European Union Intellectual Property Office entrusted with the adjudication of all appeals from all decisions of the examiners, the Opposition Division, the Cancellation Division or the department in charge of the Register. They provide a second independent review of a case and filter the number of cases reaching the General Court. This chapter investigates the legal nature of the Boards and revisits the issue of the standard of review of the decisions of the Boards.
Martin Albert, Julia Breßler and Stefan Hüsig
The concept of sustainability is characterized by a multitude of contradictions in terms of paradoxes and dilemmas. Coping with these contradictions seems to be a generic problem of sustainability-oriented management studies. Therefore this chapter raises the question: How can the subject of sustainability be more effectively taught to business-oriented students at a university given the fact it is full of contradictions? In this chapter the authors propose an application of a modified concept of Expansive Learning based on Engeström in the context of higher education pedagogy at the Professorship for Innovation Research and Technology Management of the TU Chemnitz, Germany. The contributions of the chapter are summarized in the following two aspects. First, the authors develop an overview of paradoxes and dilemmas of sustainability which can be used by researchers, instructors, and practitioners as a basis for overcoming the contradictions of sustainability. Second, they propose a modified concept of Expansive Learning with the description of learning sequencing, learning objectives, the evaluation model, and initial findings of the model application, which can be used by instructors in higher education as a framework for a novel approach to learning.