Debates on the gendered nation state have highlighted the ambivalent outcomes of policy implementation concerning gender issues in the global political economy. National state institutions still play a major role in negotiating women’s rights, fostering their advocacy and implementing gender equality measures such as gender mainstreaming and gender budgeting on the national and local level. At the same time, through processes of global governance, state institutions are in transition and often lose ground to corporate interests in the global political economy. This chapter addresses these issues and retraces the feminist state debate in the gendered International Political Economy. It illustrates key theoretical debates on gender and the state and focuses on examples from the Global North and South to show how neoliberal market transformation has shaped these debates.