Christof Schiller, Henni Hensen and Stein Kuhnle
Stein Kuhnle, Per Selle and Sven E. O. Hort
The introductory chapter briefly sketches the expansion of welfare state research in the world, discusses the relevance of developing an Asian-European dialogue on social and welfare policies, outlines the aims of the book, and presents the structure of the book which is divided into three thematic parts with 18 chapters following the introductory chapter. The three parts cover: (1) ‘Developing East Asian Welfare States: Internal Forces and Outside Influences’; (2) ‘Developed North European Welfare States: State and Society in a Globalizing World’; and (3) ‘Global Issues and Perspectives’. The chapter ends with a section on ‘Looking ahead: the uneven coming of the welfare state in the twenty-first century’.
Rune Ervik, Nanna Kildal, Stein Kuhnle and Tord Skogedal Lindén
The chapter gives a historical account of the development of the Norwegian welfare state, by delineating the evolvement of the public pension system, and the role of normative ideas of justice and fairness in that process. The authors address the following questions: (1) Which principles of justice influenced the pension discourse historically and how did the discourse contribute to change the public pension institution? (2) How does the recent pension reform (in 2011) embed changes in justice principles? They discuss these questions based on a qualitative historical analysis of local and national public documents and secondary literature. Their historical account shows that the normative principles of universalism, reciprocity and targeting have been important in all phases of the development of the Norwegian pension system. However, the relative importance of these has varied. Moreover, the authors argue that the pension reform implemented in 2011 moves the system towards reciprocity and weakens its universal character.