This chapter illustrates the unique demands of leadership in academia, a context which is currently characterized by changing conditions and developments such as new public management and heightened international competition. Academics have to fulfil multiple demands and are increasingly expected to be effective leaders. I will provide a literature overview of research on academic leadership by differentiating between administrative and research leadership. The majority of empirical evidence has focused on administrative leadership in the UK and in the US, for instance by investigating the role of pro-vice-chancellors and university presidents. In contrast, evidence on research leadership is scarce. Although research leadership, meaning leading research projects and creating a vision for a research group, is as present as administrative leadership in everyday academic work, there are only a few studies in this area. Nonetheless, effective leadership contributes highly to academic success. Based on my illustrations, I will emphasize the need for systematic development of research leadership in higher education and offer suggestions on how to improve targeted development of leaders in the higher education system.