This chapter presents an overview of measures, metrics and performance measurement management systems (PMMS). This overview is necessary since these topics often include a great deal of confusion. The chapter first defines the major constructs, and identifies and discusses their roles (with an emphasis on the role of measures as communication, rather than control, as the major role. Discussion on position measures and metrics within the changing sustainability business environment also appears. A brief review of the state of research pertaining to performance measurement management and sustainability provides additional insights. Finally, the chapter identifies areas in need of further investigation.