The aim of this chapter is to synthesize and assess the published literature relating to lean and green supply chains. A systematic literature review is performed using 24 related articles published from 1990 to 2016. One primary finding is that this research area is an emerging field with relatively recent publications in peer-reviewed journals. Secondly, there is no standard for the objectives, methodologies and topics within studies about lean-green supply chains. Third, most of the articles are atheoretical, with most recent papers focusing on theories such as the complementarity theory and the relational exchange theory. Fourth, there are a set of trade-offs and synergetic effects between lean and green practices. Finally, the future research lines suggested in the sample are related mainly to the development of new models to describe lean-green phenomena and also to use different methodologies for validation purposes. This chapter provides guidance on the topic for scholars and contributes to the definition of clear paths for further research.