Current research in democratic citizenship education (DCE) acknowledges the need to move from a cognitive to a more experiential learning process. This includes the affective component of learning, which brings with it an element of discomfort, especially in navigating the tension between the individual and the group, a necessary tension in any democracy. Transformative learning can help to theorize this process, by offering a framework in which a learning experience is triggered by the discomfort of a disorienting dilemma. This chapter focuses on using this discomfort as our learning and transforming experience, through a DCE method called Betzavta. Examples from uncomfortable moments in Betzavta training are presented in order to show how these can be used to shift participants into a more introspective self-reflection. Just as we can use discomfort in the classroom, this may also be the hope we are looking for in transforming our collective society.
Tali Padan and Nhien Nguyen
This chapter explains how management unlearning can relate to being responsible at both the individual and the organizational level. A deliberate process of unlearning, coupled with a transformative learning process, can address the critiques of management education and allow theory to become practice. This chapter explains how organizations can provide the culture for individual unlearning to take place, in order to promote a culture of awareness and responsibility. The link between transformative learning and unlearning, and the link between management unlearning and responsibility are missing components in unlearning literature, and this chapter aims to fill that gap.