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Tatiana Chekalina, Knut Fossgard and Matthias Fuchs

In the nature-based tourism (NBT) context, mobile applications may contribute to major aspects of the travel process, from anticipation and planning to documentation and sharing of the outdoor experience. For destinations and service providers, mobile technologies serve the purpose of building, maintaining and improving customer relationships between destination suppliers, their customers as well as between customer-peers. Therefore, mobile customer-relationship management (CRM) applications can facilitate and improve the daily operational work in the small-scale NBT domain by optimally combining the key components of the NBT tourism system, i.e. recreation activities, lodging, food, infrastructures, transportation and other services and features of the servicescape, intelligently offered as ‘smart package’. After a brief state of the art review, the chapter presents findings from an explorative assessment of existing mobile apps designed for outdoor experience facilitation. The chapter provides theoretical and applied insights into the capacity of mobile technology for smart packaging of NBT products.

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Matthias Fuchs, Knut Fossgard, Stian Stensland and Tatiana Chekalina

In this chapter we reflect upon the notion of creativity as it is used in classical and neo-classical economics and by its ancient predecessors of economic thinking. After showing that contemporary economic science is incapable to grasp the nature of creativity, we sketch the elements of a post-mechanist economic theory (Brodbeck 2001; 2012). Moreover, after pointing at the potentially destructive consequences of innovations, the creativity consequences analytical framework (Kampylis & Valtanen 2010) is introduced. On this base, we are assessing the intentions behind and expected consequences of entrepreneurial activity in the Norwegian nature-based tourism sector. Findings gained from data of a nation-wide survey in 2017 reveal that the sector is dominated by life-style entrepreneurs characterized by motives and creative practices grounded on a fruitful combination of human and business-centred goals and a responsible use of local resources. Policy implications and an agenda for future research are outlined in the conclusions.

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Daniel Laven, Tatiana Chekalina, Matthias Fuchs, Lusine Margaryan, Peter Varley and Steve Taylor

This chapter introduces the SAINT project and the slow adventure concept. The core pillars of the ‘slow adventure’ brand include elements such as human-powered slow journeys, inspiring connectedness with nature, wildlife watching opportunities, nature interpretation, local, wild or slow food as well as the honing of outdoor skills. These core pillars (or themes) are highly relevant to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) involved in the SAINT project and constitute the essence of ‘slow adventure’ as a product concept. Typical nature-based activities available across the project area include expeditions into nature, overnight stays combined with nature experiences, wildlife viewing, hiking, recreational kayaking, canoeing and rowing, outdoor photography, as well as slow cooking and foraging. Most importantly, the ‘slow adventure’ product concept shapes the marketing message of the transnational cluster and brand, which companies can use to develop their product and reach the market. The chapter concludes by discussing the implications of these marketing and cluster activities within the Nordic tourism context.