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Teresa da Silva Lopes and Mark Casson

This chapter focuses on the protection and counter-imitation strategies British multinationals used to defend the reputation of their brands globally in the period 1870–1929, and shows how crucial these strategies were in their survival and success. Despite new trademark legislation in the 1880s, enforcement of trademarks remained expensive, and many firms preferred negotiation to prosecution. Many imitators were based in the newly industrializing countries of the time – the United States, Germany and Japan. Imitators were often part of British export supply chains, as licensees, franchisees or wholesalers. British firms responded by lobbying governments, appointing local agents to provide intelligence, and collaborating with other firms.

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Mark Casson and Teresa da Silva Lopes

This chapter examines why some foreign investors enter high-risk environments that other investors avoid. It considers why the success of these firms often fails to encourage other firms to enter. It identifies risk-management skills that some investors possess but many others lack. These skills allow firms to devise and implement measures to prevent and mitigate adverse outcomes. It offers a typology of risky situations and shows how different combinations of risk management strategies can be used to control them. The behaviour of successful foreign investors in high-risk environments can therefore be explained in terms of specific host-country risk factors and the capabilities of firms in managing the risks associated with them.

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Mark Casson and Teresa da Silva Lopes

Since the banking crisis of 2008 the global economy is perceived as riskier than before. Flows of foreign direct investment (FDI) have contracted, and firms that cannot manage risks have withdrawn from countries in which they previously invested. These problems are not new. For centuries, firms have invested in risky foreign environments. This chapter reviews the risk management strategies of foreign investors, using archival evidence and secondary sources. It distinguishes the different types of risks that investors face and the different strategies by which risks can be managed.

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Andrew Godley and Teresa da Silva Lopes