The energy policy of the European Union (EU) does not stand on its own, but is heavily influenced by the international political economy (IPE), that is, the shifting balance between states and markets in the world economy. This chapter begins by summarizing the key historical shifts in the global political economy of energy, which provides the contextual backdrop against which the EU has attempted to develop its own energy policies and regulations. Next it describes the key features of the EU’s traditional liberal approach to energy governance, focusing on the internal energy market, the attempts to export those internal energy market rules to neighboring countries, and the policies to encourage decarbonization. The subsequent section argues that the EU may be shedding some of its liberal attitudes in favor of a more mercantilist energy governance strategy. The final section concludes and raises some suggestions for future research.
Jonas Meckling and Thijs Van de Graaf
The U.S. is an important actor in international climate and clean energy politics. Over the last thirty years, however, it has oscillated between engagement and dis-engagement. This chapter explores the role of the U.S. in climate and clean energy politics, with a focus on three key questions. First, we examine the domestic factors that explain U.S. engagement and dis-engagement with international climate politics. Second, we explore the causes as well as advantages and disadvantages of different modes of foreign engagement. This includes plurilateral versus multilateral cooperation and economic competition and global trade. Third, we examine the nature and drivers of the engagement of sub-national actors, including cities, states, and corporations. Next to laying out these key theoretical debates, the chapter provides historical overviews of U.S. foreign policy on climate and clean energy. The conclusion proposes areas for future research.