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Thijs ten Raa

The core instrument of input-output analysis is a matrix of technical coefficients. This input-output matrix orders national accounts by interconnecting the use and make statistics of the different sectors, traces indirect economic effects or multipliers, and is used to map environmental impacts or footprints. At all levels there are issues of its dimension, not only size but also type - commodities or industries - and resolution of these issues requires that statisticians, economists (applied and theoretical), and policy analysts (including environmental) familiarize themselves with each other's work. All contribute various chapters of the handbook and these are interrelated in this introductory chapter.

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Thijs ten Raa

The theory underlying indirect, multiplier effects of final consumption is detailed in this chapter. The classical example is the computation of the factors of production, first and foremost labor, embodied in final products. These embodiments are determined by taking the Leontief inverse of the matrix of direct input-output coefficients. Conditions on the input-output matrix which are both necessary and sufficient for the convergence of the multiplier effects are presented. Further multiplier effects due to household consumption are incorporated. The less labor is embodied in a product of an economy, the more productive the economy is in making that product. The relationship between input-output analysis and productivity measurement is detailed. The neoclassical approach of measuring total factor productivity by measuring input reductions using fixed prices has been criticized and alternative "effective" industry productivity growth rates have been presented in the input-output literature, but the two approaches will be demonstrated to be perfectly consistent. The analysis is also shown to encompass inefficiency measures and service productivity measures.

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Thijs ten Raa

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Edited by Thijs ten Raa

In this authoritative Handbook, leading experts from international statistical offices and universities explain in detail the treatment and role of input-output statistics in the System of National Accounts. Furthermore, they address the derivation of input-output coefficients for the purpose of economic and environmental modeling, the building of applied general equilibrium models, the use of these models for efficiency analysis, and the extensions to stochastic and dynamic input-output analysis. As well as revealing and exploring the theoretical foundations, the Handbook also acts as a useful guide for practitioners.
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Thijs ten Raa and Ronald Schettkat

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Thijs ten Raa and Ronald Schettkat

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Pierre Mohnen and Thijs ten Raa

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Thijs ten Raa and Ronald Schettkat

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The Growth of Service Industries

The Paradox of Exploding Costs and Persistent Demand

Edited by Thijs ten Raa and Ronald Schettkat

Problems arise if budgets for services are held constant whilst prices rise. Education, cultural activities and health services are under constant budgetary pressure. The authors argue that the price of commodities is linked to demand and price increases would therefore seem to threaten the very existence of these services. The paradox of these services is that in spite of their exploding costs, demand persists.