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Thomas E. Becker

The author evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the area of multiple commitments and appraises the opportunities and threats in the environment of the area. Strengths include clear evidence for the existence of multiple commitments and increasingly thoughtful theory and research, while weaknesses include the proliferation of commitment foci, failure to address important theoretical issues, and weak research designs. Examples of opportunities are the needs of scholars outside the commitment area for better explanations of behaviors and outcomes, and of practitioners for tools to predict and influence employee behavior. Threats consist of paradigm underdevelopment, perceived concept redundancy, and the tendency towards fads and fashions such that newer, ‘sexier’ concepts seem more appealing than more mature concepts such as commitment. The author offers suggestions about future directions for commitment theory, research, and practice, with an emphasis on building on strengths, capitalizing on opportunities, and addressing weaknesses and threats.

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Thomas E. Becker and Jean D. Kabongo

We define entrepreneurial resilience as the capacity of people who start businesses to demonstrate concrete, positive adaptation to adversity. The resilience of entrepreneurs is relevant to the success of new ventures because in order to survive and grow, entrepreneurs must overcome increasing competition, economic disruptions, and other challenges. We argue that entrepreneurial resilience is particularly needed in developing economies because entrepreneurs face additional and dramatic adversity, including general economic and political hardships and specific difficulties in the daily operations of managing a business. We describe and explain a grounded illustrative model of entrepreneurial resilience that identifies key antecedents (traits of wealth creation, other individual differences, and social factors) and outcomes (for entrepreneurs, firms and geographic regions). The model also draws on theory and research to specify likely mediators (positive emotions, adaptive coping, and commitment to the venture) and moderators (economic conditions, control over circumstances, and level and type of conflict). We illustrate the hypothesized relationships using examples from specific developing economies, and discuss next steps for research and practice.

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Thomas E. Becker and Rebecca J. Bennett