Peripheral municipalities are struggling with keeping communities and local economy at a viable level. At the same time, it is a paradox that in many regions such communities are highly attractive as tourist destinations. Studies from two Norwegian case-areas indicates that strategies for social and cultural entrepreneurship, may support community inspiration, optimism and creativity. This chapter has primarily a conceptual focus, aiming at exploring potential synergies of social interaction between residents and visitors in development of nature-based tourism. Based on literature and the empirical outcome from two workshops in Varanger and Trysil, we suggest that changing the tourism sector’s perspective from “destination” to “place” may support social resilience in a long-term sustainability perspective.
Morten Clemetsen, Knut Bjørn Stokke, Jorunn Barane and Thomas Haraldseid
Knut Bjørn Stokke, Morten Clemetsen, Øystein Aas, Thrond O. Haugen, Stian Stensland and Thomas Haraldseid
This chapter assesses natural and cultural resources in development of nature-based tourism, by applying two different analytical frameworks: social-ecological systems (SES) and landscape resource analysis (LRA) in two case areas in Norway (birdwatching in Varanger, angling in Trysil). Analyses based on the SES framework have its strength in showing the central links and challenges among ecological, social and governance components when utilizing resources in nature-based tourism. LRA relies on qualitative data and local knowledge, particularly through sense of place analyses based on workshops with local participants. Applied to two case studies, the two analytical frameworks contribute to better understand and utilize resources in more sustainable ways in nature-based tourism. They also show how natural and cultural resources may supplement each other in these contexts. In order to link natural and cultural resources, in-depth knowledge about local relations to nature is necessary.