Thomas Lans and Judith Gulikers
Thomas Lans, Yvette Baggen and Baggen Ploum
To move forward as researchers interested in contributing to the (European) political debate on entrepreneurial competence, on the one hand, and conducting sound scientific research, on the other, we argue that it is time for researchers to move to the next level of entrepreneurial competence research. Therefore, this chapter discusses two important aspects associated with the concept of entrepreneurial competence, namely the ‘what’ and the ‘how’ question. Both questions seem to be common sense, but interestingly the fundaments behind these two questions receive limited attention in the entrepreneurship education (EE) literature. Concerning the ‘what’ question, to prevent the generation of endless lists of competencies we propose to cluster entrepreneurial competencies in four competence domains, including a cognition-orientated, function-oriented, social-oriented and meta-oriented domain. To illustrate the power of using this framework we discuss specific research that has been done on opportunity identification competence, social competence and moral competence. Concerning the ‘how’ question we invite EE research to embrace modern educational design principles that will help to develop targeted theoretical frameworks that direct empirical intervention studies in EE. Examples of pedagogical approaches discussed in this chapter that incorporate modern education principles come from problem-based learning, project-based learning, student-centred learning environments and boundary crossing theory.