Since New Public Management (NPM) leadership was introduced in developed countries in the 1990s, many developing countries opted for similar reform to modernise and improve their public-sector performance (Pollitt, 2005; Araujo and Branco, 2009; Pollitt and Bouckaert, 2011). This is the same for Brunei Darussalam where the influence of NPM has been noticeable even though the country has very different political and institutional systems from where performance management (PM) was developed (Mohd Jamil, 2008; Rashid and Said, 2018). Brunei public administration represents a dual system of Western-style bureaucracy and a traditional monarchy. In 2003, the Monarch, who is also the Prime Minister and has the highest executive authority in the nation, mandated through his Titah (speech) for performance management practices, such as strategic plans and key performance indicators (KPIs), to be incorporated into public sector organizational activities. As a result, a National Strategic Alignment Program (NSAP) was established that aimed to drive the public sector organisations towards the Brunei national vision and development plans by monitoring and reviewing strategic plans of respective government organisations. Over the years, the importance of strategic planning and cascading it to the level of departmental KPIs and to be understood by the public servants has been repeatedly emphasised.