Chapter 14 analyses air transport security in Australia. It begins by emphasizing that the provision of aviation security is a challenging task in the country given the number of airports and the quantity of passengers and cargo. It then describes the situation that characterized aviation security before 2001, one that did not consider terrorism explicitly because of the widespread belief that Australia was not considered as an important target. Things dramatically changed after the September 11 events. The chapter then discusses two subsequent security related episodes that raised doubts about the effectiveness of the adopted measures. An external investigation and an inquiry that lasted three years resulted in a series of recommendations on how to further strengthen the Australian security system. The chapter ends with a description of the most recent events and with an analysis of the most controversial issues that prevail in Australian aviation security.