What is the effectiveness of environmental NGOs in the neoliberal world order? One critique is that international environmental (IENGOs) often become co-opted actors serving a neoliberal capitalist agenda. The internationalization of local environmental issues has produced important outcomes, even within authoritarian, quasi-authoritarian and post-authoritarian states. Some cases demonstrate the effectiveness of international mobilization and pluralist political pressure-group politics; in others, IENGOs working inside the neoliberal frame, sidestepping the state altogether. International “name and shame” campaigns targeting consumption practices and international corporations are cases in point. IENGOs have not been immune to the chill winds of neoliberal governance. Some have operated within its limits and achieved significant outcomes; others have resisted and rejected neoliberalism. All have faced challenges, and responded in different ways with different results. Many have the potential to break from traditional politics, operating more creatively and genuinely transformative political projects, and all have an important role as agents of social learning.