Chapter 13 considers air transport security in Japan. The chapter begins with detailed descriptions of three aviation security related episodes that have involved Japan air lines both domestically and at foreign airports/routes. These were useful to raise awareness of the importance of the issue of aviation security and the need for new measures. Though these changes enhanced the level of security, the chapter continues by highlighting and describing the main problems that still need to be dealt with in order to further strengthen the Japanese aviation security system. These are related to voluntary security checks, to the imposition of expenses to private airlines, to the overall organizational structure of the aviation security system and to the balance between security and service. The chapter concludes by noting the importance of aviation security for the successful development of the 2020 Olympic and Paralympic games in Tokyo.