This chapter sets out a research agenda for how social anthropology as a discipline may study economic inequality. It argues that future research should seek to pay attention both to the social and to the moral constitution of economic inequality. Using the sociology and morality of inequality as a framework, it suggests a central area of study should be the examination of the appropriation and distribution of surplus. The chapter presents a number of areas that may be explored in relation to this surplus. It finishes by suggesting that a further area of study would be to expand this focus on surplus by considering historical and contemporary radical alternatives to the political and economic systems that currently generate such dramatic levels of inequality.