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Torbjørg Jevnaker

While formally outside the EU, Norway is associated with the EU through the EEA Agreement. This provides access to the internal market, subject to Norwegian implementation of relevant EU legislation – but not to EU decisionmaking. The EU’s package approach to climate and energy policy for 2020, with heavy involvement of the European Council, reduced Norway’s possibilities for informal influence. As Norway’s energy and emissions profile has differed from that of the EU, the package was not well aligned to the country’s energy and climate situation. Thus, hurdles were expected – and the implementation pattern observed was a mixture of support, delays and continued opposition. A combination of factors can explain this: differences between the situation of Norway and that of the EU, domestic politics and characteristics of the EEA Agreement – moreover, foot-dragging in implementation is easier if discussions are still ongoing at the EU level. Changes facilitated by the package have largely been absorbed, especially given possibilities for flexibility and compensation. The 2020 package was no game-changer, and experience with the 2020 package thus has had little impact on Norway’s 2030 position, which has remained largely stable. However, changes in EU priorities – notably towards ‘domestic’ emissions reduction – have forced Norway to look in new places for possibilities to offset domestic emissions, reconsidering its stance on participation in EU climate policy for non-traded sectors.
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Jon Birger Skjærseth, Per Ove Eikeland, Lars H. Gulbrandsen and Torbjørg Jevnaker

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Jon Birger Skjærseth, Per Ove Eikeland, Lars H. Gulbrandsen and Torbjørg Jevnaker

What comparative lessons can be drawn from domestic implementation of the EU’s climate and energy package for 2020? And what are the implications for the negotiations on 2030 targets and policies? The authors’ first conclusion concerning the status of implementation of the EU climate and energy package is that transposition of the package in national legislation has generally been completed, after significant delays – particularly regarding CCS. However, application and realization of policies and measures have varied significantly among the four countries that are the focus of this volume: Germany, Poland, the Netherlands and Norway. Secondly, variation in domestic politics emerges as a more potent explanation of variation in implementation than ‘fit’ and adaptation pressure. Implementation of a package of policies has been easier than might have been the case with implementation of single policies. The third conclusion concerns the good overall correspondence between differing national implementation experiences and national positions on new EU policies. These positions fed into and influenced the 2030 climate and energy negotiations. The final outcome reflected a re-packing compromise that could build on implementation experiences with the package for 2020.
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Jon Birger Skjærseth, Per Ove Eikeland, Lars H. Gulbrandsen and Torbjørg Jevnaker

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Linking EU Climate and Energy Policies

Decision-making, Implementation and Reform

Jon Birger Skjærseth, Per Ove Eikeland, Lars H. Gulbrandsen and Torbjørg Jevnaker

Based on an innovative theoretical framework combining theories of EU policy making, negotiation and implementation, this comprehensive book examines EU climate and energy policies from the early 1990s until the adoption of new policies for 2030. The authors investigate how the linking of climate and energy concerns in policy packages has facilitated agreement among EU leaders with very different policy ambitions. Employing in-depth studies from a diverse range of energy-economic countries, the book also explores the impact of the implementation of policies on the climate and energy policy framework and the Energy Union initiative.