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Dyhia Belhabib, Allan Padilla, U. Rashid Sumaila and Daniel Pauly

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U. Rashid Sumaila and Vicky W.Y. Lam

Changes in ocean physics and chemistry under climate change are already impacting upon marine organisms, ecosystems, and the services they provide us, including seafood. This impacts upon British Columbian (BC) waters, Canada, and will have direct impacts on supply of the ‘staple seafood’ consumed by residents of BC. The authors discuss how these changes would affect seafood household budgets of British Columbians under climate change. The study projects that prices of iconic west coast species will increase under the climate change scenario. The net change in price attributable to climate change costs British Columbians up to $110 million a year in 2015 dollars and this imposes significant burden on household budgets. Impacts on the oceans provide compelling arguments for rapid reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. To effectively mitigate the CO2 emissions requires immediate action and collaboration among different levels, from individual and private actors to the government and intergovernment levels.

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U. Rashid Sumaila, William W.L. Cheung and Vicky W.Y. Lam

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Louise Teh, Vicky Lam, William Cheung, Dana Miller, Lydia Teh and U. Rashid Sumaila

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U. Rashid Sumaila, William W.L. Cheung, Philippe M. Cury and Travis Tai

In this chapter the authors review current knowledge on the potential impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems and the millions of people worldwide who depend on them. The authors highlight the fact that different parts of the world would be impacted differently and, therefore, climate will impact people in different regions differently. They then provide a number of policy recommendations to help prepare society for the changes that we are already seeing and those yet to come. To build climate resilient marine ecosystems and global fisheries, the authors highlight the need to transform their management by increasing incentives for community engagement, deploy marine protected areas, and promote sustainability enhancing public policies by avoiding harmful ones such as the provision of capacity enhancing fisheries subsidies.

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Louise S.L. Teh, W.L. Cheung and U. Rashid Sumaila

Canada is surrounded by three social-ecologically distinct ocean regions: the Arctic, Atlantic and Pacific. These oceans support rich biodiversity and provide vital social, economic and cultural benefits to Canadian society. The long-term sustainability of Canadian oceans is challenged by uncertainty over the impacts of future climate and socio-economic change. Scenario analysis can be used to address this uncertainty by exploring alternative futures for Canada’s three oceans under different pathways of climate, economic development, social and policy changes. However, to date there has been no national-scale scenario developed to enable the investigation of Canada’s future ocean sustainability. To facilitate this process, the authors discuss whether existing scenarios of Canadian oceans provide an integrative, social-ecological perspective about potential future conditions for Canada’s fisheries and marine ecosystems. They then apply the findings to inform the development of a national-level scenario framework which allows a social-ecological examination of Canada’s oceans in terms of the state of future environmental, social and economic uncertainties.