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David Kemp, Han Guodong, Li Ping, Wang Zhongwu, Zhao Mengli, Udval Gombosuren, Gantuya Jargalsaihan, Zhang Yingjun, Hou Xiangyang and Jane Addison

A description and discussion of herder communities, grassland ecology, livestock systems and animal production in Mongolia and Inner Mongolia are provided. The description includes reference to specific grazing trials. An overview of the modelling designed to capture some of the complexities of these systems is provided. The bioeconomic sustainable grazing model used to estimate environmental benefits of changed production systems under alternative policy settings model, and referred to in Chapter 7 and elsewhere in the book, is introduced. Income and livelihood impacts of changing production systems under different market and environmental conditions are reported.

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Colin G. Brown, Jeff Bennett, Qiao Guanghua, Lkhagvadorj Dorjburegdaa, Jane Addison, Udval Gombosuren, David Kemp, Han Guodong, Karl Behrendt and Li Ping

Based on the understanding of the grassland ecology and of environmental, livestock production and market systems in Mongolia and China, and on an understanding of herder attitudes, perceptions and behavioural responses, this chapter discusses how incentives can be strengthened to meet the objectives of improved grassland condition and herder livelihoods. The chapter draws on a typology of environmental policies to examine how the incentives can be strengthened and policies improved. For instance, the chapter draws on the empirical analysis in Chapter 7 to discuss the effectiveness of policy instruments such as livestock taxes or ecocompensation payments to reduce stocking rates, on Chapters 2 and 6 to discuss issues related to compliance and enforcement of grassland policies, and on Chapters 2, 3, 4 and 6 to discuss moral suasion efforts and instruments that alter herder property and grassland use rights. The comparative analysis of Inner Mongolia and Mongolia throughout the book is drawn on for additional insights on strengthening the incentives and formulating strategies.