Women’s entrepreneurship is on the rise, meaning that around the world, women increasingly contribute to creativity, innovation, and job creation. This chapter is therefore dedicated to women’s entrepreneurship. It traces the origin of entrepreneurship by showing how much it has developed from Schumpeter’s analysis, who envisaged it as a tool for economic development, to the emergence of social entrepreneurship. Discussing legal perspectives in light of individual and institutional drivers shows that men and women are equipped with the same legal forms as platforms for their entrepreneurship allowing them to align their individual drivers and entrepreneurial intentions. Yet women’s choice can be limited due to gender-specific barriers that restrict them from fully utilizing their choice of legal forms. This can hinder the alignment of women’s individual drivers and their entrepreneurial intentions, which potentially undermines the role of women as entrepreneurs in general.
Kate Clayton-Hathway and Ulrike Fasbender
Women’s participation in sporting activity has increased significantly over recent years, though they continue to be underrepresented in management and leadership roles. UK sport faces a similar gender imbalance, and this chapter offers an exploration of this through a research study investigating enablers and barriers to women’s career progression in the horseracing industry. Women across all sectors face a series of career barriers which were also identified within horseracing. These include family responsibilities, perceptions that women are less motivated or capable, limitations due to role segregation or gender stereotyping, and negative perceptions of female leaders. Important career enablers include the development of social and human capital, for example through training, mentoring, and sponsorship. As a response, and reflecting existing, successful business-led voluntary frameworks, a series of industry-led initiatives was developed for horseracing. These included methods to support women’s progression, along with addressing underlying attitudinal barriers to achieve long-term change.