2. Uma Outka, Fairness in the low-carbon shift: learning from environmental justice. The environmental justice movement in the United States forged a pivotal connection among concerns for social justice, civil rights, and environmental protection. Today, as climate change drives a shift in the energy sector away from fossil fuels and toward low-carbon resources, calls for “energy justice” and “climate justice” expand the environmental justice movement’s conceptual reach in the modern context. The link between climate change, energy, and environmental justice is unmistakable: the energy sector contributes to climate change more than any other industry; climate change is predicted to affect environmental justice communities most; and the energy sector has a long history with environmental injustice. The chapter provides practical guidance on integrating environmental justice principles into the law and policy governing the renewable energy transition.