Uwe Cantner and Eko Agus Prasetio
A technology is disruptive if it provides value different from current, mainstream technologies and it initially exhibits relatively lower levels of performance that are most important to mainstream technology customers. The term has evolved since its introduction in 1997 and so has the empirical research, from how to measure the phenomenon to its relationship to market structure. In addition to startups and incumbents, Cantner and Prasetio recommend that scholars focus on ways to find emerging technology markets and their related unmet needs. Further, what is the influence of network externalities, increasing returns to technology adoption and, importantly, how does this relate to lock-in and barrier effects for new technologies to enter the market?