This chapter will: 1) systematically analyze the totality of existing published peer-reviewed articles up to date on entrepreneurship research using exclusively any of the available neuroscientific tools (for example, fMRI, EEG, MEG, and so on). Thus far a review as such as not been produced. This review is based on the whole ISI Web of Knowledge’s Social Sciences Citation Index to avoid a potential bias and/or omissions. The exclusion criteria applies to: articles that primarily focus on neuroscience, psychology or the like but not entrepreneurship; articles that are not peer reviewed; working and not empirical papers. 2) To uncover the main inconsistencies, knowledge gaps, conceptual and methodological problems in this field. 3) Propose a research agenda for coordinating efforts to move the field forward as well as to stress the potential of examining entrepreneurship phenomena with the aid of neuroscientific tools.
This chapter builds upon the presumption that a fusion between entrepreneurship and neuroscience is justified by the methodological and technological advantages facilitated by the former. It first suggests that the joint use of neuroscience tools such as laboratory experiments and brain-driven technologies are propitious to entrepreneurship research because they allow a deeper level of analysis: the entrepreneurial brain. Second, focusing on one of these tools – laboratory experiments – the chapter unveils nine principles to take into account for the good design of an experiment within the structure of a brain-driven entrepreneurship study. It is normal that unraveling these principles are to assist entrepreneurship researchers with gaining a further understanding of the experimental design fundamentals when adopting a neuroscience perspective, while assisting them to moderate the unavoidable challenges ingrained in this interdisciplinary crusade.
This chapter brings to light seven neuroscience technologies that could be applied to entrepreneurship research. It argues that the use of these technologies in conjunction with an experimental approach is meaningful to entrepreneurship scholars because it facilitates a profound level of analysis, and some of these tools hold the potential to nurture and augment entrepreneurial behavior. The technologies were screened based on a threefold criteria: non-invasiveness, ability to collect data directly from the human brain, and a reasoned assessment of its potential to examine entrepreneurship enquiries. The identified techniques are as follows: electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), functional magnetic imaging resonance (fMRI), functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIR), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and neurofeedback. Each technique is introduced in terms of its pros, cons, and applicability to delve into entrepreneurship research themes. Withal, the end of the chapter distils four criteria to guide the appropriate selection of a neuroscientific tool.