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Violetta Zentai

The chapter examines policy formations that are driven by the EU Framework and the National Roma Integration Strategies in 2011–2015 in four new member states of the EU: Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia. It addresses the converging trends emerging in the four countries. It is argued that, by the time the EU Framework was established, the new member states had moved to selected learning modalities and pragmatic experimentalisms in the broader field of social inclusion. In the current European policy environment, in the field of Roma inclusion policies residual outcomes are generated by resilience and renewal of horizontal non-governmental networks, selective involvement of knowledge holders in policy decisions, and general governmental interest in the member states in avoiding large-scale and systemic governance failures.