This chapter provides an overview of the current legal system and legal institutions –statutes, courts for instance – in a broader sense, in China with emphasis on environmental law where appropriate. The issues, such as how laws are promulgated, which laws are currently in effect, who is responsible for the execution of laws, and how judiciary system works are the main topics. It begins with a structural description of laws currently in effect in accordance with the customized divisions of the legal system. Then, it reviews the legislative branch including the allocation of legislative power, the legislative procedures and the rules resolving conflicts of legal norms. The judiciary system concerning the courts and the procuratorates as well as the role of the executive branch are analyzed.