Chris Brewster and Wolfgang Mayrhofer
Edited by Chris Brewster and Wolfgang Mayrhofer
Chris Brewster, Adam Smale and Wolfgang Mayrhofer
The chapter examines globalisation in the context of two international HRM literatures: comparative HRM (CHRM); and HRM in multinational enterprises (MNEs). It reviews debates behind the “globalisation thesis” and long-term developments towards convergence or divergence at the macro level of nation states, and the meso level of organisational practices. It uses the notions of context, time and process to examine these literatures. It calls for the use of time to ensure better theory building and for more longitudinal and qualitative work to reveal micro-political processes at play. It argues more attention should be given to the role of process – the means and mechanisms through which management operates – in the international HRM field. It discusses the role of key actors at higher levels, and the role of psychological processes at the individual level through which employees attach meaning to HRM.
Wolfgang Mayrhofer, Paul Sparrow and Chris Brewster
Elaine Farndale, Wolfgang Mayrhofer and Chris Brewster
The subject of comparative human resource management (HRM) and its boundaries are established, discussing the role of context in HRM. The question is then raised whether globalisation is making such an analysis increasingly irrelevant as societies seem to converge. To investigate convergence further, the chapter explores levels and units of analysis of comparative HRM. The chapter also outlines the shape and content of the Handbook, which includes theoretical and empirical issues in comparative HRM, the way that these affect particular elements of HRM, and the way that different countries and regions think about the topic.
Chris Brewster, Wolfgang Mayrhofer and Paul Sparrow
This chapter examines the ways in which Western Europe is different from other regions in the world identifying particularly differences in approaches to stakeholders, the role of government and employee involvement as crucial. The authors discuss differences within Europe and the various cultural and institutional clusters that have been proposed. The chapter sets this within developments in globalisation but notes that the economic crisis that began in 2008, and the UK’s Brexit vote and the election of Donald Trump in the USA, have all raised questions about the ‘inevitability’ of globalisation. The authors conclude that human resource management (HRM) in Europe is likely to remain different from that in the other parts of the world, and the regions within Europe are unlikely to become more standardised in their approach to HRM.
Wolfgang Mayrhofer, Chris Brewster and Elaine Farndale
This chapter brings the Handbook to a conclusion, drawing together common themes from across all chapters, mapping the field of comparative human resource management (CHRM). The authors conclude with a reflection of the challenges that remain for comparative analyses, commenting on how the field might continue to develop in the future. Calls are made for a greater range of countries and country clusters to be covered by comparative analyses (which this Handbook has already started to address), as well as demanding greater clarity in the HRM phenomena that are being compared. By adopting more rigorous methodologies and stronger theorizing for comparisons, this will improve the ability to explain rather than just describe the differences and similarities observed across different contexts.