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  • Author or Editor: Wouter P. Veenendaal x
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Wouter P. Veenendaal

Reflecting their diminutive size and protracted existence as sovereign states, the political systems of the four European microstates – Andorra, Liechtenstein, Monaco and San Marino – contain various idiosyncratic elements, as well as some unique political institutions. The chapter offers an in-depth analysis of the political systems, international relations and economic and societal characteristics of these four European microstates. Moreover, European integration and the exploitation of niche markets have provided these very small states with great opportunities. Yet, as with other small states, such occasions are always accompanied by risks and vulnerabilities.