Xiangdong Chen, Xiaoqing Liu and Yong Wang
Xiangdong Chen, Zhichun Liu and Valerie Marleen Hunstock
In Chapter 3, Chen et al. (2020) evaluate the National High and New Technology Industrial Development Zones in China by applying ecological theories and concepts of innovation eco-systems. Such zones are similar to science parks and tech parks in other countries. They have expanded rapidly and are one of the important policy instruments of the Chinese national innovation system. This chapter primarily evaluates the structure, function, and information flows of the innovation activities inside the zones - instead of only evaluating the usual measures of innovative capacity and output performance. The empirical examination is applied to 53 National High-Tech Industrial Development Zones in China between 1990 and 2014, and with further insights into the cases of Zhongguancun (Beijing) and Zhangjiang (Shanghai). The results indicate that these zones play vital roles in stimulating the rapid development of high-tech industries in China, but that they do so in diversified ways due to their interaction with regional innovation ecosystems.