The system on air space utilization is an important part of Urban Planning Law. The air right, the right to utilize a certain space above the earth’s surface, is legislated in many countries and provides a basic foundation for utilizing air space. With the social development in China, the air right is merged into Urban Planning Law. Regarding current practices, there are mainly three forms of air space utilization, i.e. artificial foundation, transfer of floor area ratio and floor area ratio awards. They are gradually instituted through precedents and laws such as Urban Planning Law, Building Standards Law and Cultural Relics Conservation Law. The main content of the system on air space utilization from the perspective of urban space law includes establishing an exceptional system on floor area ratio, imposing certain conditions and limitations and setting forth a system on special permits. Keywords: Air space utilization; urban planning law; air right; exceptional system on floor area ratio
Selected Papers of The Jurist (法学家), Volume 5
Louis William Rogowski, Caitlin Bubel, Xiao Zhang and Min Jun Kim
This chapter presents the work of the Biological, Actuation, Sensing, and Transport Laboratory (BAST Lab) located at Southern Methodist University (SMU), a highly specialized and ambitious research group that focuses on developing a spectrum of microrobots for medical applications and the development of programmable matter. Microrobotics relies heavily on digital innovations for success. The laboratory uses a diverse set of control mechanisms to actuate and direct microrobots of all different forms. These robots include geometric magnetic particle aggregates, artificial cells, and bacterial hybrids; all of which possess powerful features that can be adapted for different environments within the human body and can be used to fabricate novel structures and sensors. This chapter delves into the technology employed by BAST Lab and extrapolates the potential innovations to come from the research.