Edited by Xiaowei Zang
Edited by Xiaowei Zang
This chapter asks whether the Chinese government has played a key role in wastewater treatment in China. China scholars have examined policy making on and technological aspects of wastewater management in the PRC. Policy making is a first step for the government to address the technological aspects of water pollution control. The next step is government measures to implement pollution control policies. However, there is limited research on government measures and the efficacy of each measure in the treatment of wastewater in China. This chapter aims to narrow this knowledge gap. It first outlines the levels of wastewater discharge and review the literature on wastewater treatment in China. Next, it discusses why government pollution control measures are related to water pollution control. Next, it uses provincial data on wastewater treatment in China for the period of 2004-2014 (N = 341) to examine the effects of government measures on wastewater treatment and shows that some government measures matter with regard to wastewater treatment in China.
Lipsky”s Street-Level Bureaucracy (1980) led to a major paradigm shift in the study of public administration and bureaucracy. It identified discretion exercised by frontline workers as a central issue in the study of street level bureaucracy. Chinese scholars have since 2000 joined research on street level bureaucracy. Some reviews of the English literature on street level bureaucracy have been published in China. This chapter offers a brief review of research on street level discretion in the West, drawing on Hupe and Buffat (2014); Maynard-Moody and Portillo (2010), and Portillo and Rudes (2014). Compared with the Chinese reviews noted above, this chapter is a more substantial and updated summary and assessment of the literature on street level discretion. It also raises some critical issues for future research on frontline discretion in China.
Lisa Zang and Xiaowei Zang
This chapter examines the main causes of leniency and severity in street-level law enforcement in China. It asks: given a civil offence in China, how many adjudications are harsh punishments and how many of them are lenient treatments? Who are likely to receive legal leniency? This chapter briefly reviews the history of severity and leniency in China's legal system and discuss two possible institutional bedrocks of severity and leniency by Chengguan officers, i.e., political expediency and Confucian benevolence. It examines patterns of civil law enforcement among Chengguan officers and finds that while there is severity during the course of law enforcement, there is leniency toward some groups of street venders if they are the elderly, women, the disable, etc. This chapter explains the variation in severity and leniency in terms of the government policy of balancing leniency with severity and Confucian tradition of leniency and severity.
Xiaowei Zang and Lucy Xia Zhao
The study of the family and marriage in China is interesting given profound changes in fertility transition, household structure, mate selection, divorce, old age support, and so on, since the nineteenth century. This chapter first reviews the English literature on a few selected aspects of the family institution and marriage in China. Next, it summarizes the outline of each of the chapters, which discuss a wide range of topics including love and marriage, educational endogamy, family planning, son preference, the marriage squeeze, family decision-making power, filial piety and old age support, intermarriage and intercultural dating, international adoption from mainland China, and many more.
Edited by Xiaowei Zang and Lucy X. Zhao
Xiaowei Zang and Hon S. Chan
This chapter offers readers a contour of the development of public policy and public administration (PA) teaching in the People's Republic of China (PRC). Next, it discusses the current state of research on PA in China, via an examination of some good reviews of both the English literature and its Chinese counterpart on PA in China. It then outlines each of the chapters to guide readers through this Handbook. It discusses the two ways with which this Handbook departs from existing handbooks on PA. Firstly, many existing handbooks discuss general challenges and broad opportunities in PA research in different countries, yet they do not include a detailed discussion of theoretical and empirical issues in each of the countries they cover. In comparison, this Handbook offers detailed information on many aspects of PA in a single country, i.e., the PRC. Secondly, many existing PA handbooks include chapters on theoretic perspectives on different topics in PA, which are mostly based on research in the West. They are unlikely to be very relevant for readers who are interested in empirical issues in or how existing theories from the West can be best used to guide research on PA in China. In comparison, many chapters of this Handbook combine a literature review with empirical analyses in the study of PA in China. It can serve as a reference for graduate students and young scholars in future research in this field. This chapter concludes with a suggestion of some possible action plans to advance research on PA in China.