China has formed a relatively mature national highway network system to the country’s development in the past 40 years since the reform and opening up. This chapter attempts to analyze the development and prospects of China's highway network (CHN) from multiple perspectives. First, the CHN’s functional hierarchy, system division, system distribution and development modes are introduced. Second, the spatial evolution pattern and effects of the network are discussed, and then some issues on economic promotion, debt risk and financial sustainability are also investigated. It can be seen that by playing a crucial role in improving accessibility and mobility, the CHN is evidently capable of facilitating time–space convergence and spatial coverage. But its impact on the economy promotion and industrial upgrading has huge controversies with multiple facets. The problematic toll policy and huge financial risks threaten the sustainability of the entire network.