The chapter provides an account of early childhood education. It shows that, although provision has improved because of policy and funding support from the central government, there are still significant differences in provision between urban and rural areas. It concludes that quality provision of early childhood education for all children has become an urgent policy responsibility for the government.
Xin Zhou, Takashi Yano and Mustafa Moinuddin
Zhiqing E. Zhou, Xin Xuan Che and Wiston A. Rodriguez
Nurses are at a higher risk of being victims of various types of workplace mistreatment, including incivility, bullying, verbal aggression, physical violence, and sexual harassment. In addition, due to the nature of nurses’ work, the perpetrators of workplace mistreatment can be from multiple sources, including patients, patients’ visitors (i.e., family members and friends), co-workers, physicians, and supervisors. Further, exposure to workplace mistreatment has various negative effects on nurses’ health and well-being, emotions and attitudes, and behaviors. These facts suggest that nurses’ exposure to workplace mistreatment is a critical issue, and researchers have explored potential antecedents of nurses’ exposure to workplace mistreatment and designed training programs/interventions to reduce them. The goal of this chapter is to provide an overview of research findings on nurses’ experiences of workplace mistreatment in terms of its frequency, sources, consequences, predictors, coping strategies, and potential intervention strategies.