Compared to Germany and France, China seems to have a relatively low level of air–HSR physical and operational integration due to political, economic, airline network, geographic and other reasons. For a particular Chinese airport, whether it is necessary to physically integrate air and rail or not depends on many factors, of which the air–rail transfer demand is a prime factor to consider. Even if airports and railway stations are physically integrated, operational integration is even more complicated. Since the Chinese HSR system also serves long-distance domestic markets, under most circumstances, the Chinese HSR system competes against aviation. Because of this reason, it is very difficult to achieve a true air–rail integration in China in the near future. The European air–rail integration model may not be directly applicable to China due to different circumstances.